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The earliest traces of human settlement around Ephesus reach back into the Chalcolithic period (5th millennium). Latest since the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium) Ayasoluk, the well defendable freestanding mound with rocky slopes on its three sides, was occupied. At that time the settlement lay directly on the shore instead of the flatland which was flooded by the Kaystros River (Küçük Menderes) since antiquity, whereas the sea extended till the foot of the mountain chain to the south, east and north. Until well into the early 8th century Ayasoluk remained as the only known settlement around Ephesus. Since the Late Bronze Age the southeastern foot of the territory of Artemision was also used; there, a sanctuary existed latest since the beginning of the Iron Age (2nd half of the 11th century). The Late Bronze Age settlement over at Ayasoluk is most probably to be identified with Apaša, the capital of the Luwian Kingdom of Arzawa (16th – 13th centuries) representing the most important power in western Anatolia, which was first a rival, then a vassal of the Hittite Empire. Profound changes in the material culture show a change in the population structure in the 11th century: Greek settlers conquered the coast of western Asia Minor during the so-called Ionian colonization. The myth conveys one Androclos, the son of an Attic king, who wrested Ephesus from the indigenous Carians, Lelegs and Lydians. The centre of the city remained over at Ayasoluk. Since mid-8th century additional settlements were established at and around Mount Panayır of which one under the later Tetragonos Agora (Commercial Market) was partially excavated. The independent city state (polis) of Ephesus was increasingly pressed by the ambitious Lydian Kingdom: Shortly after 560, the Lydian King Kroisos conquered the city and forced the Ephesians to resettle on flatland near the Artemision. This late Archaic-Classical city lies today under the metres deep alluvial deposits of the Kaystros. In 546 or shortly after, Persians conquered the Lydian Kingdom and therewith Ephesus. Their rule lasted until Alexander the Great (334 BC). The next turnabout in urban development was laid down by Lysimachos, one of the successors of Alexander, who resettled the inhabitants in the beginning of the 3rd century BC into the valley between Mount Panayır and Mount Bülbül.
EPHESUS-VIRGINMARY’S SHRINE-SELCUK MUSEUM-SELCUK CASTLE-ST.JOHN BASILICA-İSABEY MOSQUE-ARTEMIS TEMPLE
-Visit Virgin Mary’s Shrine
-Visit selçuk museum
-Visit St.John Basilica and Selçuk Castle
-Visit İsabey Mosque
-Visit Artemis Temple
3 people $ 360.-
4 people $ 400,-
5 people $ 445,-
Mercedes Vito is for maximum 5 people so please do not forget children.